American Psychological Association

123rd Annual Convention
Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

Danny Wedding: Movies and Mental Illness

Using Movies to Understand Psychopathology

Danny Wedding on Film and Psychopathology
Danny Wedding, Ph.D., MPH

To a cheering welcome befitting a movie star, Dr. Danny Wedding was introduced by APA Past-President Frank Farley:

"Danny got his Ph.D. in clinical psychology at University of Hawai'i, a post-doc in behavioral medicine at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2 Fulbright Scholarships, in Thailand and South Korea, the first psychologist selected as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow, APA Congressional Science Fellow... Author or co-author of a dozen books, most notably Current Psychotherapies which some of you probably have read, or are using in classes... the definitive book on contemporary psychotherapy, and he's got two books about the movies. He's the past-President of 3 Divisions of APA (Divisions 12, 46, and 52), and he's here today with Karen Harrington, his beautiful wife of 2 years, so please welcome Danny Wedding"  [applause]

"Thank you Frank, I appreciate it, I'm delighted with the turnout ...
I'm so glad you're here, I hope this is fun. I want you to enjoy it.

I like talking about movies. I've got lots of clips so I'm going to move quickly.

I am now living in Antigua. I managed to wrap up my career on a Caribbean island, it's very cool, I started my career teaching medical students [and it is a wonderful way to wrap up 35 years as a professor]. I'll probably be there for a couple of more years and then hang up my spurs...

But the nice thing about writing about movies is I can do this for the rest of my life. And every 3 or 4 years we've got to update our book, because new movies come out. This is the first edition of the book. ["Movies and Mental Illness", Hogrefe] This is the kind of research you do after you get tenure... [Laughter] I retired from the University of Missouri and they would never have given me tenure had I been doing this kind of stuff.

Danny Wedding and his first book about film

Who's on the cover?

[Audience: Jack Nicholson!]

And the movie?
[Audience: As Good as it Gets!]

We had to pay Jack Nicholson $300 to use his image on the cover!... Who's that? Russell Crowe, A Beautiful Mind, $1000...

And so for the 3rd edition we paid a depressed teenager $15 to look bad [image onscreen, silhouette of teen looking sad - audience laughter]

And that's the 4th edition. We've just been delighted with the reception the book has received. We had a lot of fun doing it.

It's an excuse to watch lots of movies. Like many of you I'm neurotic and compulsive and guilt-ridden and I can't just watch a movie for fun. I feel like I have to be accomplishing something, so I take notes. Psychologists do that. ....And for me one of the nice byproducts has been a chance to speak around the world... as a result of the book. And because it was successful Hogrefe asked us to do a second book, on Positive Psychology at the Movies, I just came out with a second edition ....

So Movies and Mental Illness ties into the DSM 5 and the positive psychology book ties into the work of Marty Seligman and Chris Peterson....

You're probably aware of this model of virtues and character strengths:

Character Map
Character Strengths and Virtues

But what I really want to talk about is the way that our attitudes about mental illness are shaped by films.

[Onscreen: Image from 'Gone with the Wind']

I saw this movie when I was about 13 and I spent the rest of my life waiting for an opportunity to say,
'Frankly my dear, I don't give a damn'.

Some of the happiest days of my life have been in movie theaters and I expect the same is true for many of you. I'm a big Hitchcock film fan. He was a very psychologically minded director. And he's got this great quote: [Onscreen]

'Drama is simply life with the dull parts cut out.'


I think films oftentimes contribute to stigma. And I think you agree. It comes from the Greek word...

[Onscreen: Freddie Krueger]

We think about people like Freddy Krueger as being a product of mental illness, his behavior relating to mental illness. His mother was a nun who is trapped in a hospital and raped by 1000 men. Somebody wrote on a website [Onscreen image]: 'Freddie is the offspring of a 1,000 maniacs' ... and that was written by somebody who knows almost nothing about mental illness and even less about reproductive biology. [Laughter]

That's what mental illness looks like. [Onscreen image of wholesome-looking couple and their 4 young children]

And who is that? Andrea Yates, yeah, and she killed those beautiful children. So it's not Freddie Kruegers that we need to deal with. We need to help people like Andrea Yates.

Movies like The Shining (1980) suggest that there's an association between mental illness and violence. And this is the most predominate theme you get in films. It's a pernicious and hurtful theme that comes up again and again.

We're going to talk a lot about Jack Nicholson today. He's a pretty amazing actor.
You will remember the scene which was improvised [Clip onscreen]:
'Here's Johnny!' (The Shining, 1980)

So the message is that people become mentally ill and become dangerous, they become axe murderers - literally axe murderers in this case - and they threaten their children....

You remember 'Silence of the Lambs'? When this movie came out I was so pleased to discover that Hannibal Lecter was a psychiatrist - I would have hated if he were a psychologist! [laughter].

But people get their ideas about psychotherapy and what we do from movies like this. I don't think they believe that we're cannibals but they probably think we're sometimes unethical.

This is a scene you'll remember: (Hannibal Lecter in Silence of the Lambs): 'A census taker once tried to test me but I ate his liver with some fava beans and a nice chianti')

Agent Starling is clearly upset. Anthony Hopkins improvised that line. It wasn't in the script, the hissing.

So there's movies like Henry and Maniac...

I'm very honored to have Otto Wahl here today. I've followed his work for years, he just told me he followed mine...Thank you for coming.

These are some points that Otto made a few years ago and they come from his book Media Madness:

Dangerousness and Mental Illness

And the reality is, of course, that the vast majority of people with mental illness are not dangerous. Some people probably are, but the film and the movies that we see would suggest that it's commonplace.

Films as Teaching Tools

Sometimes films can educate the public.

I think As Good as it Gets taught a lot of people about Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and what it looks like, and so films can be very positive. I think Rain Man educated a lot of people about autism, Temple Grandin, in a more recent film...

Dominant Themes in Movies

There's some themes I'd like to share with you and I'd like you to watch these when you see movies in the future:

Myths and Movie Themes

One theme that you see oftentimes in films, is the myth of traumatic etiology. It's a ubiquitous myth.

And you see this in films like The Fisher King (1991). This is a movie that I loved - I'm a big Robin Williams fan and I'm still saddened by his death. But I think that films like The Fisher King get it wrong. If you remember the movie he suffers from PTSD and yet he develops the symptoms of schizophrenia in the film. Trauma is a terrible thing but it doesn't produce schizophrenia-like symptoms. [Clip from The Fisher King] You don't develop that type of vivid visual hallucination as the result of a traumatic experience.

Another theme that comes up again and again, repeatedly in films, is this idea of a schizophrenogenic mother - usually the mother, sometimes a father. I think that's really unfortunate and we should be way past that by now. A film that I think illustrates that very nicely is Shine - if you remember, about the life of David Helfgott. Many of you have seen it. It's one of the rare films that shows a schizophrenogenic father.
[Onscreen: Clip from Shine, 1996 - "A wonderful film marred by the presentation of a schizophrenogenic father" - A violent scene with enraged father]

Clearly a bad father.

Another movie you may want to watch for is Julian Donkey-Boy. Some of you may have seen it, I suspect. In the movie, Werner Herzog plays the father and he's very abusive to his son, and of course his son becomes mentally ill.

[Onscreen slides: The Myth of Mental Illness - Eccentricity - Perspective]

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975)

Yet another myth is this idea that 'mental illness isn't real'. It kind of ties into the work of Thomas Szasz and R.D. Laing and some people like that. The idea is that people with mental illness are just 'harmless eccentrics'. They're kind of like you and me but they've got more personality perhaps.

And I think that you see this most clearly in the classic film One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest.

One of the great joys in my life at this point in my career is introducing young students to these amazing movies that helped shape my career and my thinking and my life, but they haven't seen them.

And when they see a movie like One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, they always were happy, and always pleased to be introduced to this film. I think that probably everyone in this room has seen this movie.

It won the 5 big Academy Awards: Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and so forth.

It's interesting. If you look at the American Film Institute's list of top heroes and villains, Nurse Ratched comes in at #5. Right up there with Norman Bates and Darth Vader and Hannibal Lecter.

I think the film is a bit unfair to nursing.

[Clip with Nicholson's character defending his statutory rape by saying 'But Doc, I was 15 years old going on 35 and she told me she was 18...between you and me.']

[Several great clips from One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest - with Dr. Martini et al]

Great Movie.

Myth #4 - Love alone is sufficient to conquer mental illness


Another myth that you see in films is an idea that if mental illness is terrible but if you're only loved enough or if love comes into your life that love can solve your mental illness. And the pernicious corollary to this is that if somebody doesn't get better it's because they're not loved enough or because their spouse has failed them or their parents have failed them. And you see this in movies like Benny & Joon.

Benny and Joon (1993)

[Clip: 'Hiring housekeepers is not your forte']

"That clip [Johnny Depp making bread dance] has nothing to do with mental illness, but I like it! It pays homage to Buster Keaton." Overall, on a psychology and film history level, it is noteworthy film.

Moving to specific disorders being portrayed...

Bipolar Disorder

There was 2012's Silver Linings Playbook, a great movie, which addresses bipolar disorder.

[Clip: Meds discussion - 'We haven't even finished the salad yet' - 'you have poor social skills']

Myth #5: Schizophrenia vs. Dissociative Identity Disorder ('Split Personality').

"Another myth that comes up a lot: This is a very sophisticated audience, and so you know the difference between schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder - but the general public doesn't and so you see lots of films that conflate the two or suggest that people with schizophrenia have dissociative identity disorder.

[Onscreen Clip: Me, Myself & Irene Clip (2000) - 'Just a stupid thing, I have to take a pill every 6 hours or I feel funny, no big deal' ...'So Charlie is a schizo']

Frank just pointed out that Jim Carey is a Canadian...

But wait, he's a 'schizo'. It's an ugly word and people laugh at seeing this character kicked and tazed. There are very few areas where we would laugh if we saw another minority treated in that way.

I'm not going to show you a lot of this [but] it's a great film, Scent of a Woman [1992], Al Pacino is magnificent...

[Clip: "I'm not bad, no, I'm rotten." "You're not bad, you're just a pain." "What do you know about pain, you little snail dart..." "Just give me the gun, Colonel" ]


So sometimes I think that a film can be used for pedagagical purposes, so I'll have my students watch this film and then ask them if they would try to take the gun away. And I will tell them to come in with the warning signs of suicide, and it's pretty easy to make a list and see why the Colonel is at high risk.

[Onscreen: Image of Mr. Jones : "A classic illustration of bipolar disorder"]

I'm especially interested in the portrayal of bipolar disorder in films. We've got lots and lots of films, in every chapter of the Movies and Mental Illness book, and so we talk about all these at some length... I wish we had more time today to talk about them."

Sample of educational films illustrating bipolar disorder:

"If you haven't seen Mr. Jones with Richard Geer, it's a powerful film.... [suggestive that therapists are unethical] Richard Geer has an affair with his psychiatrist and people see movies like that and think that, well, we probably have affairs with our patients, that that's what therapists do.

If you haven't seen Kirk Douglas in Lust for Life, a film about the life of Van Gogh, you really should, and the film suggests that Van Gogh probably had bipolar disorder.

[Clip: 'these colors give me an extraordinary exaltation.... lemon yellow, sulphur yellow ... what a country it is .... I have no doubts, no limitations, I'm working like a steam engine...']

[Onscreen some additional recommendations for Mood Disorders: The Bell Jar (1979), The Hairdresser's Husband (1992), The Hospital (1971), The Last Picture Show (1971), Mishima (1985), Ordinary People (1980), Umberto D (1952), A Woman Under the Influence (1974), Sylvia (2003), Helen (2009), Prozac Nation (2001), The Hours (2002), Revolutionary Road (2008), Melancholia (2011), A Single Man (2009), It's Kind of a Funny Story(2010]

A powerful film. I recommend it highly.

You see [onscreen] Michael Clayton , another nice example of what bipolar disorder looks like.

[Clip: Michael Clayton (2007) "If it's real the pill won't kill it... you are a manic-depressive." ... "I am Shiva the god of death."]

So there's lots and lots of movies that have dealt with bipolar disorder... and some are coming out this year that I think are very powerful.

I loved A Woman under the Influence (1974), recommend it highly... House of Sand and Fog - if you haven't seen it, is an amazing movie. Jennifer Connolly's affect is just perfect; I show it to students sometimes to show what depressed affect looks like. I think she's wonderful in her role.

I loved The Hours and think it's just a magnificent movie and the life of Virginia Woolf is worth our students' learning about.

[Clip: Virginia Woolf's suicide note portrayed: "I feel certain I am going mad again. I feel we can't go through another of those terrible times. And I shan't recover this time. I begin to hear voices and can't concentrate."]

And of course, she commits suicide, and it's a great loss to the world.

[Clip in film of speculation at the time about her diagnosis as 'manic-depressive' and her use or not of lithium.]

So oftentimes on CD's there's commentary about the film, and if the film's about mental illness you can learn a lot just by listening to the commentary.

I wish we had time to talk about the association between Mental Illness and Creativity. I think it's one of the most fascinating areas in psychology right now. It's a hotly debated topic.

You can't give a talk about mental illness and movies without talking about Psycho (1960).

Norman Bates is a classic. This is one of the best known scenes in film history:

[The first few seconds of Psycho's infamous 'shower scene' onscreen]

You know what comes next. [laughter]

Vivien Leigh [from Psycho] was supposed to be the keynote speaker at a conference in Houston, on movies and mental illness. It turned out [due to a film and contract obligation] at the last minute she pulled out, and I got to sub for her. That was great fun.

Dissociative Disorders

[Onscreen: Other Possibilities for Dissociative Disorders - Agnes of God (1985), Paris, Texas (1984), Persona (1966), Primal Fear (1996), The Return of Martin Guerre (1982), Sommersby (1993), Spellbound (1945), Suddenly Last Summer (1959), Secret Window (2004)]

When I lecture on Personality Disorders, to medical students and clinical psychology students, I frequently show clips from Fatal Attraction [1987]. Glenn Close read about Borderline Personality Disorder in preparation for her role - and if you go through the criteria in DSM5, she fits every one. It's a great teaching film.

[Onscreen slide - Marsha Linehan, known for her pioneering treatment approach, DBT: "People with BPD are like people with third degree burns over 90% of their bodies. Lacking emotional skin, they feel agony at the slightest touch or movement."]

Marsha's a friend of mine and I really respect the work that she's done with Borderline Personality Disorder.

Here's just a bit of Fatal Attraction:

[Onscreen quote from Close's character: "It's not going to stop. It's gonna go on and on until you face up to your responsibilities....I just want to be part of your life....What am I supposed to do? You don't answer my calls, you change your number..."]

Great great teaching film. I'm actually very grateful to this movie because it came out at a time in my life when I was toying with the idea of having an affair. (laughter) I decided not to. (laughter)

[Onscreen - Additional Possibilities for Personality Disorders: The Accidental Tourist (1988), Aguirre: The Wrath of God (1972), The Caine Mutiny (1954), The Grifters (1990), The Odd Couple (1986), Remains of the Day (1994), Silence of the Lambs (1991), Sunset Boulevard (1950) ]

Breakfast drugs

There are lots of films about substance abuse. [We won't talk about them now, due to time]. I once gave a talk at a conference, a medical meeting... I was talking to a bunch of surgeons, there were about 200 surgeons in the room. I'd just asked a rhetorical question, 'What do we have up here?' and somebody in the back row mumbled 'breakfast'. [laughter]

Lots of films about substance use disorders. If your students don't get a chance to go to an AA meeting and experience what that's like in person they can watch films and get a good sense for what it's like.

Of course lots of movies trivialize the problem of alcoholism [E.g., Arthur ]. There are literally 100's of films that deal with alcoholism and how alcoholism and drug addiction affect relationships. I thought When a Man Loves a Woman was a powerful film....

[ Onscreen short-list of Alcoholism-themed films: Arthur (1981), Days of Wine and Roses (1962), Drunks (1997), Ironweed (1987), Trees Lounge (1996), Flight (2012), Smashed (2012) ]

Requiem for a Dream , have you seen it? An amazing movie, highly recommend it.

Lots of films that deal with the paraphilias...Blue Velvet is a terrific film - If you haven't seen some of these films, I recommend them to you as a psychologist, I think you'll be interested. Pulp Fiction - Lots of pathology; Pedophilia, Lolita (1962) ['technically not pedophilia'] .... Crash, I thought was a pretty remarkable movie.

[Onscreen - Drug Abuse in Films: Clean and Sober (1988), Drugstore Cowboy (1989), I'm Dancing As Fast As I Can (1982), The People vs. Larry Flint (1996), Pulp Fiction (1994), The Seven Percent Solution (1976), Sweet Nothings (1996), Trainspotting (1996), Requiem for a Dream (2000) ]


I'm not going to talk about most of these, but let me talk for schizophrenia for just a little bit.

One of my major professors was Raymond Cattell. One of Frank's major professors was Hans Eysenck [both pioneers in personality theory] and sometimes we'd debate which was the better psychologist. (He always gets it wrong!) But I was taking a class from Ray when he got this letter and he gave it to me...

[Onscreen: cryptic diagram, symbols and the phrase, 'the word of power' - a word salad in iambic pentameter]

I thought The Soloist was a good film, based on a true story.

[Onscreen: 'The Soloist (2009) seriously examines the challenges of living with a disease like schizophrenia. It is based on the true life story of Nathaniel Ayers']

Peter Winter's character in Clean, Shaven [Canada, 1995] is very powerful. Sometimes people ask me 'what's the best film to illustrate what it's like to be coping with a disease like schizophrenia?' ... and I recommend Clean, Shaven. It's a very powerful film.

[Onscreen: quote from Peter Winter's character in Clean, Shaven: "They put a receiver in the back of my head and a transmitter in my finger."]

These are some older films....I'll get to more recent films...

An Angel at My Table 1990 is based on a true story and it's, I think, really very powerful: [Clip: 'I've got schizophrenia.... a gradual deterioration of the mind with no cure']

Imagine what a diagnosis like that must feel like.

Girl Interrupted is a powerful film, if you haven't seen it.

I loved A Beautiful Mind when it came out, thought it was well done, but Ron Howard gets some things wrong. People with paranoid schizophrenia typically don't have vivid visual hallucinations, they have auditory hallucinations. But he took some artistic license and I thought did so very, very skillfully.

Lots of films deal with schizophrenia. We talk about all of them in the book.

[Onscreen - Other Possibilities for Schizophrenia & and Delusional Disorders: An Angel at My Table (1990), Benny and Joon (1993), David and Lisa (1963), Dressed to Kill (1980), The Fisher King (1991), The Madness of King George (1994), Shine (1996), Sophie's Choice (1932), Sweetie (1989), K-PAX (2002) ]

Other disorders...

Mental Retardation and Autism

I loved Rain Man, Dustin Hoffman was terrific. The film was based on the life of Kim Peek, and Dustin Hoffman went and spent three weeks with Kim Peek, a man with autism, learning about his mannerisms and habits. (I got to have lunch with Kim Peek a few years ago and he was really a fascinating character.)

[Slide Onscreen: 'Hoffman's performance introduced millions of people to the concept of autism as a specific illness distinct from mental retardation.']

Sling Blade (1996) - a very powerful movie. It presents some ethical dilemmas that I think our students can grapple with and I think that's healthy.

Neuropsychological Disorders

[OnScreen Suggestions: Awakenings (1990), Iris (2001), Driving Miss Daisy (1989), Lorenzo's Oil (1992), Regarding Henry (1993), The Notebook (2004), Away From Her (2006), Amour (2012), Still Alice (2014)]

Wonderful films about neurological, neuropsychological problems... If you haven't seen Still Alice, you really should. It's a movie very similar to Iris, similar to On Golden Pond or Amour - an amazing movie.


Lots of films that deal with violence.

I love introducing my students to A Clockwork Orange and the way that behavior therapy was conceptualized. I was trained as a behavior therapist, and I don't know, I never did any of this! (laughter)

[Screen shot of Alex is being 'reprogrammed', strapped into electroshock machine in Clockwork Orange: 'Bound up in a strait-jacket...Then they clamped like lid-locks on me eyes...']

O. K. We don't do that. But psychologists come away looking very bad in the movie and very unethical. I'm interested in the way that we're portrayed in films.

[On Screen: 'Recurring Motifs' in how therapists are portrayed:
'Learned and Authoritative' (Psycho) - Arrogant and Ineffectual (The Exorcist, What About Bob?) - Seductive and Unethical (Mr. Jones, Tin Cup) - Dangerous and Omniscient (Silence of the Lambs, Dressed to Kill) - Kindly and Well Intentioned (Ordinary People, Good Will Hunting) ]

You'll recognize a lot of those characters, a lot of those movies. Good Will Hunting was terrific. Robin Williams was so good as a psychologist. If you look at that scene where he's choking Matt Damon, and you freeze it, and then you blow it up, and you look at the title of books, they all deal with transactional analysis. I'm probably the only person in the world who's ever done that. (laughter) So there are some motifs that come up again and again and you see them usually in comedies, like Analyze That. [Onscreen - Analyze That: "Discuss it! ... I'm getting a $*@?! headache here. What are you trying to say? ... He's a criminal? This is news? For that you need a doctor degree?"] (laughter)

Remember What about Bob - It's the only film I know of that's exclusively about transference and countertransference. [Clip, with Bill Murray can't leave his therapist's 'vacation' - 'I'm totally paralyzed...all locked up.]

[Clip: Tin Cup, 1996] - We see a psychologist acting unethically ['What kind of doctor did you say you were?' 'Human frailty, well that's my life work.']

Of course they wind up sleeping together.

Lots of Woody Allen films deal with therapy. [Onscreen: Clip from Deconstructing Harry (1997) - 'You sick, sick &$%! Having an affair with one of my patients, huh?!']

Prince of Tides - Interesting ethical dilemma presented, so I talk to my students about that. [Slide: In Prince of Tides (1991), Barbara Streisand plays a psychiatrist who has an affair with the brother of her patient.]

[Time expiring]

Don't have time to talk to you about media.

In the book we try to rate with 5 psi symbols, the relevance of films. Anything with 5 psis is worth your time, worth seeing; if it just gets one, don't bother.

Psi Ratings

I edit the journal PsycCRITIQUES, APA's journal of book and film reviews. And we have a film review every week. That was a practice that E.G. Boring started when he founded the journal back in the 50's. And so I brought it back and so we see lots of movies and have those reviewed and you might enjoy that.

I got Dean Simonton to recently review Life Itself and if you haven't seen it you should - a powerful film.

I want you to know about PsycCritiques - there's a blog that goes with it:

Be Sure to See:

There are lots of recent films that are worth seeing. [Onscreen: Amour, Melancholia, Cake, Love and Mercy] These are some that I've liked:

I'm a big Lars von Trier fan [Melancholia]. Cake is a nice illustration of depression. Go see Love & Mercy [song/life of Beach Boy Brian Wilson] - Paul Giamatti is magnificent playing the role of psychologist Gene Landy (who lost his license to practice in California) ...See Welcome to Me. Infinite Polar Bear is worth seeing - here's a short clip. ['How am I supposed to have my own life when you won't let me do anything?']

Here's a film you should know about [just released this week or soon, depending where you live] The Stanford Prison Experiment (2015)

[Clip: 'Would you rather be a guard or a prisoner?' 'Remember, just as you are watching the prisoners my graduate staff and I will be watching you.' 'All right gentlemen, we gonna have ourselves a lot of fun.' 'OK, is it just me or are these guys taking this thing a bit too seriously?' 'Make up your bunk, 8602!' 'Let me out of here!' 'I had no idea it would turn out this way.']

[Fortuitously, the just released Stanford Prison Experiment was screened and then discussed with Phil Zimbardo the very next day at the conference. Clearly of great interest to psychology professionals and fans, though a bit different as it depicts/recreates an actual psychology experiment, and illustrates some powerful social psychology dynamics. Tomorrow Zimbardo will speak as to how accurate the details are and address the larger concepts and how they were depicted in the movie. See link below.]

So I've arranged to get Phil Zimbardo to review the film for PsycCritiques ... I'll also have another review too, to balance it out!

This has been fun, I really enjoyed it. Thank you!" [Onscreen: That's All, Folks!]

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Asynchronously Live from Toronto

2015 APA Convention Highlights:
Aaron T. Beck at 94: Humanism, Therapy, and Schizophrenia | Albert Bandura: Efficacy, Agency, & Moral Disengagement | Danny Wedding: Psychopathology & Psychotherapy in the Movies | Phil Zimbardo on 'Stanford Prison Experiment' (the movie)

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